Learn. The Greeks had calculated a relatively accurate figure -- 39,690 km around, as compared to an actual measurement of 40,008 km. on or linked-to by the Website infringes your copyright, you should consider first contacting an attorney. Popular culture portrays Columbus as having the insight that the world was round -- and thus that China could be reached by sailing westward -- while his ignorant contemporaries insisted the world was flat. Farmers living in close proximity to their livestock gave ample time for the bacteria and viruses to jump the species barrier. The Treaty of Tordesillas primarily concerns the division of __________ between two colonial powers. And it undermined African economies. Flashcards. AP Human Geography: Political Geography Vocabulary. But the trans-Atlantic slave trade differed in several crucial ways. This college-level course introduces students to the systematic study of patterns and processes that have shaped human understanding, use, and … Colonial Riches and the Asian Trade [link]. ensuring Germany would respect the territorial sovereignty of France and Belgium in western Europe and Africa, dividing the continent of Africa among the various European imperial powers without an outbreak of war between those powers, establishing trading ports in Japan and China for the European imperial powers, preventing German attempts at achieving hegemonic control over the European continent, organizing a combined western European resistance against the Ottoman and Russian Empires. During the last few decades of the nineteenth century, and the early twentieth century, the European imperial powers carved the continent of Africa among themselves. The world economy has one market and a global division of labor. Varsity Tutors LLC A review on the different types of diffusion with review questions. St. Louis, MO 63105. As historian Janet Abu-Lughod put it, "the 'fall of the East' preceded the 'Rise of the West'" (Abu-Lughod 1989). Start studying Colonialism (APHG Unit 3). the The Berlin Conference was convened in 1884 with the intention of dividing up the continent of Africa among the various European imperial powers (Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy). NBER Working Paper 14783. It was Europe that stumbled upon them simply because Europe was located much closer to the Americas than China or India were. Placing race in environmental justice research in Latin America. A disease that infects too quickly will soon find itself without any new victims because everyone in the population is either dead or healed. 2020 AP Test Changes Due to COVID-19. Those that fell on the Portuguese side of this arbitrary line now live in Brazil and continue to speak Portuguese; those that fell on the Spanish side live in the rest of South America and continue to speak Spanish. Britain and other powers extracted tax breaks and special deals as well as trade monopolies over certain regions. Transportation of which of the following was NOT part of the Atlantic Triangular Trade of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries between the Americas (American colonies and the Caribbean), Europe, and Africa? Independent states are the building blocks of the of world political map. This video goes over everything you need to know about the different types of diffusion. 4 Diagnostic Tests 225 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept. 2. Test. Mahan's Sea Power Theory . Explain how indigenous languages have been under threat from primary economic activities in the Americas since the 1970s. They told themselves it was their task to bring civilization to the backwards peoples of the world -- a task labeled "the white man's burden" by British author Rudyard Kipling. Blaut, J. M. 1993. But the presence of massive European demand for slaves greatly shaped Africans' incentives. information contained in your Infringement Notice is accurate, and (c) under penalty of perjury, that you are link to the specific question (not just the name of the question) that contains the content and a description of B. Note how this resembles the recent spike in Mexican tortilla prices in response to US ethanol demand. The Berlin Conference was primarily concerned with __________. In the United States, for example, government- and church-run boarding schools for Native American children prohibited them from speaking their native language, practicing their native religion, or learning traditional native ways of making a living (e.g. The world's major mining companies are headquartered in places like North America and Europe. This helps to solidify control of the colony. Colonialism is a process by which a country takes over new land, and reorganizes that land's economy to benefit the colonizing power, rather than to benefit the residents of the colony. During the two centuries of British rule in India, India's economy was restructured to benefit Britain (Davis 2001). Europe had a breakthrough in 1492 with the voyage of Christopher Columbus (Blaut 1993). This is a sample of Part one of my AP Human Geography: Unit 4 slideshow. Sundberg, J. Geographies of Postcolonialism is a very accessible introduction to colonialism, post-colonialism and postcolonial geographies. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Dobson, Andrew P., and E. Robin Carper. (Note that contrary to popular myth, the Chinese did not use gunpowder solely for fireworks -- indeed, one would have to be rather dense to invent something that makes a dramatic explosion, and not figure out that you could use it to kill someone!) Please follow these steps to file a notice: A physical or electronic signature of the copyright owner or a person authorized to act on their behalf; Since Papua New Guinea is so poor, they lack the power to say no to the foreign mining company, or to mine the minerals themselves. either the copyright owner or a person authorized to act on their behalf. DBHS AP Human Geography 2012-13 Monday, November 5, 2012. At least a few Europeans settled in every colony, in order to run its affairs and direct the production of wealth for the ruler. Over time, these trans-regional economic linkages have spread farther and grown stronger, leading eventually to our modern globe-spanning economy. Typically, there is a mass migration of people from the colonizing country into the colony. Those who saw the harm in this internalization then reacted by simply flipping to the other side and rejecting anything that allegedly carried the taint of the colonizer. But the granting of formal independence did not necessarily end the economic … The term “Neo-colonialism” has emerged in recent years to refer to the continued economic dependence of colonies on their former occupiers. European trade goods, particularly guns, quickly became necessities. Ships sailing in the Mediterranean were blocked by the African, Arabian, and central Asian land masses, the rulers of which could limit trade or extract taxes from merchants. Your teacher may choose to organize the course content differently based on local priorities and preferences. The semiperiphery is composed of areas in between the core and periphery. Europe was attracted by the riches of Asia, but had few products that it could trade for Asian goods. Between 1492 and 1900, over 10 million men and women were taken from Africa to the Americas (Voyages 2009). Basic and Non-Basic Industries. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (58) Antecedent Boundary. One major commodity that China did demand from the outside world was precious metals, particularly silver (Frank 1998). A revolution in environmental justice and sustainable development: the political ecology of Nicaragua. A. Fun fact: the English language is named for the Angles, an ethnic group who (along with the Saxons) were ancestors of the English people. 2001. 1. Second, the trans-Atlantic slave trade was highly racialized. The first was technological superiority (Diamond 1997). Berkeley: University of California Press. Ethnic groups that were hardest-hit by the slave trade exhibit lower trust and poorer economic success than their neighbors who were less devastated by slavery (Nunn and Wantchekon 2009). Daily Nation. 2009. Origins of the Modern World System [link]. So why is English spoken so widely there? The definition of cultural diffusion (noun) is the geographical and social spread of the different aspects of one more cultures to different ethnicities, religions, nationalities, regions, etc. First, it led to efforts by colonizers to wipe out or prevent the practice of native cultural traditions. 3. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. This continuation of unequal economic relationships despite an end to formal political control is called neo-colonialism. 2008. But Europe's advantages in military technology alone would have been insufficient to guarantee victory. 2. It was conquered by the Japanese during the war but returned to France following the conclusion of the war. Much of the trade within Asia was carried on by Arab and Chinese ships, and caravans through Central Asia. Then click 'Next Question' to answer the next question. Britain's mills could now buy cotton from its colonies in India and Egypt, as well as slave-grown cotton from the southern US, turn it into cloth, and make a profit selling that cloth around the world, including in the cotton-producing colonies. BioScience 46 (2): 115-126. Colonialism involves a powerful nation sending settlers to permanently live in another land under the originating nation's control. misrepresent that a product or activity is infringing your copyrights. Science & Society 53 (3): 260-296. This distinction remains important to this day, even since independence, because it represents a cultural and linguistic distinction. India and China were the dominant economic powers in this system. This re-cutting of the colonized territory stuck groups long at odds with each other together into the same political unit. This means that the profits from selling the mine's products will go to investors in those regions. The effects of four centuries of slave trade on Africa are still apparent, a mere century and a half after its end. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. As trade routes began to grow again, European rulers and merchants committed themselves to capturing more of the trade surplus -- to becoming less of a semiperiphery and more of a core part of the world economic system. PLAY. or more of your copyrights, please notify us by providing a written notice (“Infringement Notice”) containing The slave trade and the origins of mistrust in Africa. Journal of World History 16 (4): 411-465. The slave trade and the origins of mistrust in Africa, Soul wound: the legacy of Native American schools, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. The types include, nations, states, nation-states, multinational states, multistate nations, and autonomous regions. Advanced Placement Human Geography (also known as AP Human Geo, AP Geography, APHG, AP HuGe, AP HuG, AP Human, or HGAP) is an Advanced Placement social studies course that studies human geography.The test is administered by College Board.. © 2007-2020 All Rights Reserved, The term Neo-colonialism is used to refer to, France is currently by far the biggest trading partner of Algeria, this is most accurately described as, The Treaty of Tordesillas primarily concerns the division of, The Berlin Conference was primarily concerned with, SAT Courses & Classes in San Francisco-Bay Area. KEY QUESTION #2: WHY DO PEOPLE MIGRATE? OR. For example, imagine what happens when a mining company opens a new mine in Papua New Guinea. Imperialism. ChillingEffects.org. Kenya: Post-election violence not spontaneous. Despite having achieved independence half a century ago the economy of Algeria remains closely tied to the economy of France. Eventually, the stage is set for a renewal of growth. Sovereignty is the authority of a state to govern itself. For any given disease, human genetic variation will produce people with a variety of levels of susceptibility to the disease. Struggle in Ogoniland: Ken Saro-Wiwa and the cultural politics of environmental justice. This often leads to mistreatment of the original inhabitants, degradation of the local environment, and introduction of previously unknown diseases. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82 (3): 369–385. Given this history, it is not surprising that the entitlement theory of famine was developed by Amartya Sen, an Indian. In many cases, that was British consumers rather than Indian ones. Watts, M. 1983. Most Greek gods and goddesses are representations of the active physical elements that made up the local landscape. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. But in fact this is a myth, invented by storyteller Washington Irving in 1828. Europeans did not colonize the interior of Africa during this period (though they would do so later, after the end of the trans-Atlantic slave trade). The Dragon's Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa. A mere boost to Europe's fortunes was not enough to turn Europe into the core of the world economy. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Of these countries, all are correctly labeled except Mozambique and Great Britain. AP Human Geography : Colonialism & Imperialism Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography. AP Human Geography Unit 3 FRQs 1. World Ecological Degradation: Accumulation, Urbanization, and Deforestation 3000 B.C.-A.D. 2000. Weber’s theory fails to account for the greater economic dynamism of Asia during much of the period after the Protestant reformation or the recent economic success of Catholic (Spain, Ireland) and Confucian (Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore) societies. information described below to the designated agent listed below. Numerous colonies still exist today -- for example, the US controls places such as Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, and some native activists argue that Hawaii is more colony than state. The distinguishing feature of the neo-Europes is the similarity of their climates to that of Europe. European trade with Asia was further hampered by a lack of easy trade routes to the East. Your name, address, telephone number and email address; and Techniques ranging from aid packages with strings attached, to direct military intervention, were used to install friendly regimes, with little regard to the consequences for the prosperity of the people in the countries in question (Faber 2002). Home Embed All AP Human Geography Resources . France is currently by far the biggest trading partner of Algeria, this is most accurately described as __________. India fell first. 101 S. Hanley Rd, Suite 300 Finally, diseases have a much more devastating impact when they come to a new population for the first time. Smith, Andrea. Chew, Sing C. 2001. The taxes were often timed to force native producers to sell their crops at times of the year when markets were glutted and thus prices were low. They came to believe that they were an inferior or backward people and that the only hope lay in assimilating to the colonizer's culture. Colonization also imposed new boundaries on colonized lands. Rights verus rites: when it comes to the lives of women around the globe, do local traditions ever trump human rights? A related theory was environmental determinism. Thus, the diseases that people in Afro-Eurasia got from their livestock could easily find new victims in the local area, and pass on to new areas when the local epidemic's peak passed. your copyright is not authorized by law, or by the copyright owner or such owner’s agent; (b) that all of the A ruler who acquired guns from the Europeans in exchange for slaves was at a political and military advantage vis-a-vis neighbors who did not participate in the slave trade. At this time, most of the Eastern Hemisphere -- from Britain to Japan, and from Russia to Zimbabwe -- was connected in one large trade network (Abu-Lughod 1989), shown in Figure 2. Widely believed to be the “cradle of humankind,” Africa is the only continent with fossil evidence of human beings (Homo sapiens) and their ancestors through each key stage of their evolution. Silent Violence: Food, Famine and Peasantry in Northern Nigeria. Emory University. Post-Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism [link]. The pattern would be repeated throughout the Americas. The Americas, on the other hand, produced only three domesticated animals -- turkeys, llamas and alpacas, and guinea pigs (Native Americans also had dogs, which were brought from Asia). In Africa, it was common for the best and most fertile lands to be seized by British colonists, forcing native Africans to crowd into poorer lands (Rocheleau 1995). None of these are the sort of herd animals that commonly pass diseases to humans (Diamond 1997). Barnard College, Current Undergrad, Mathematics-Statistics, Political Science. If Varsity Tutors takes action in response to Other writers have tried to find something inherent in European culture to explain the difference. Mercantilism was eventually replaced by free-market capitalism as the dominant economic theory in Europe and much of the world. The important idea here is that long-distance trade is not carried on for the equal benefit of all parties. … Start studying Ap Human Geography Unit 4. the "Pax Britannica" established in Africa (Watts 1986). Once the American colonies (Figure 3) were conquered, the new European rulers had to find someone to extract the resources and produce the products that would make the colonies worthwhile. 2010. Joni Adamson, Mei Mei Evans, and Rachel Stein, 229-246. Over time, only the genes conferring high resistance to the disease will be left. The colonizers then favored the "higher" races, placing them in positions of power. … Wallerstein's World System Theory. Diffusion is the spreading of culture from one area to another. Society and Natural Resources 21 (7): 569-582. It was not uncommon for tribes to lose 90% or more of their members. In his first assault on the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, Hernán Cortéz's forces -- armed with guns, swords, steel armor, and war horses -- were defeated by the Aztecs. Created by. Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World. The formation of some of the early trans-regional economic linkages can be dated to as early as 3000 BCE, when the Sumerians living in what is now Iraq traded with Egypt and the Harappan civilization in what is now Pakistan (Frank and Gills 1992). Cieza de Leon, Pedro. The mines of the Americas began pumping silver into the Asian economy, either moving directly across the Pacific in Spanish galleons, or passing to Europe and then on via the Middle East, India, and Southeast Asia (Figure 4). sufficient detail to permit Varsity Tutors to find and positively identify that content; for example we require Second, many people native to the colonies internalized the colonizer's ideologies. But by the late 1400s, the world economy was on its way back. La Crónica del Perú. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press. The geography and climate of the Mediterranean region, for example, directly influenced Greek mythology. If you've found an issue with this question, please let us know. The only way to acquire cash was to grow crops that could be sold to colonial trading monopolies, or to work as a laborer in colonial mines or other jobs. Such activities have continued since the fall of the USSR. Human Development Index. But the granting of formal independence did not necessarily end the economic and political control that the core held over the periphery. Each downswing is an opportunity for the system to be reorganized as different powers seize the advantage. This meant that they had a lot of land to give away, but were at a distinct military disadvantage against inland tribes who had not been hit so hard, and thus they wanted allies. AP Human Geography Exam. This ideology brought two types of subordination to colonized peoples. In Rwanda, for example, the sharp (and allegedly racial) divide between Hutus and Tutsis, and the privileging of the Tutsis that formed the basis of Hutu resentment, were created by the Germans and Belgians during their rule (Mamdani 2001). By the end of the colonial era, the world economy had been remade to place Europe and the neo-Europes in a dominant position. The colony is usually the recipient of colonists from the colonizing country, not the other way around. We learned in an earlier chapter that the idea of race, in the sense of biologically distinct sub-species of humans, was created during the colonial era to justify the social organization of the colonies. A description of the nature and exact location of the content that you claim to infringe your copyright, in \ International Trade Approach & Self Sufficient Approach. Crosby, Alfred W. 1986. So as the American colonies began to gain their independence, European colonial efforts shifted to the east (Figure 5). Under British rule, these programs were eliminated. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Rights verus rites: when it comes to the lives of women around the globe, do local traditions ever trump human rights? New international division of labor. Davis, Mike. 2007. Give a real world example for each way. Wallerstein’s World System’s Theory divides the world into core nations and periphery nations, which closely parallels neocolonial ideas. The Scramble for Africa. Asian manufacturing was much more productive than that of Europe. Moreover, the net effect of colonization in some cases was to exacerbate ethnic tensions. If you believe that content available by means of the Website (as defined in our Terms of Service) infringes one 5. Slave traders naturally preferred able-bodied young men and women, who were the productive backbone of pre-slave-trade African economies. mgettenberg. The population of the Americas, on the other hand, was smaller, less densely settled, and less tightly linked into long-distance trade. During this contraction phase, regions refocus on local subsistence and trade declines. London: Longman. Consider the impact of colonialism on the world’s cultural geography. As the silver flowed toward China, a variety of commodities -- textiles, spices, ceramics, and others -- flowed back toward Europe. One of the reasons that Europe had remained in the semiperiphery of the world economy before 1492 was that there was little that Europe could produce that China and India wanted. Most of the devastating epidemic diseases are derived from diseases common to herd animals. A huge variety of theories have been proposed to explain why certain countries have come to dominate the world economy. The Domino Theory. But economic historians have also identified long-lasting waves of economic growth and decline, lasting several hundred years. New York: W.W. Norton and Co. Faber, Daniel 2002. The course content outlined below is organized into commonly taught units of study that provide one possible sequence for the course. Chamberlain, Muriel E. 1999. The plague originated with rats from central Asia. as The Indian Ocean in Eurasian and African world-systems before the Sixteenth Century. Varsity Tutors. In practice this meant stripping the colonies of their raw resources, bringing them back to Europe, and either storing them or using them in manufacturing. Thus, millennia of living with various diseases had turned them into childhood nuisances but not terrible plagues for Europeans. which specific portion of the question – an image, a link, the text, etc – your complaint refers to; Language ex³nc³on, both currently and throughout history, has been a major concern for cultural geographers, linguists, anthropologists, and other academics. These continents proved far more lucrative for Europe than any trade route. Please be advised that you will be liable for damages (including costs and attorneys’ fees) if you materially As late as 1793, the Chinese Emperor Ch'ien Lung bragged to King George III of England: "I set no value on objects strange and ingenious and have no use for your country's manufactures" (Frank 1998). Frenkel, Stephen. Here's another fun fact: the Angles never lived in Hong Kong. Political Geography. Colonialism and the rise of capitalism. Epidemics will tend to kill the people who are most susceptible, preventing them from passing on their genes. Long-distance trade fell off as people focused on maintaining their own local livelihoods. Today, geographers hold that one critical piece of the puzzle of the rise of the West is colonialism. The term Neo-colonialism is used to refer to __________. Economic activity in ex-colonies continued to be funded by investors in the former colonizer, and products were bought and sold by companies based in the former colonizer (Davis 2001). Heartland and Rimland Theory. And the hemisphere-wide economic system that had emerged connected Europe into a huge total population of people. Looking at Figure 1, we know that certain parts of our world have been at the forefront of economic growth, becoming the core of the capitalist world economy. London: Verso. Conquest and colonization of the Americas provided Europe with a huge boost in resources and markets that enabled it to hitch a ride on the Asian train – and eventually take over that train. Chase-Dunn, Christopher, and Thomas D. Hall. And if the white race is not biologically distinct from other races, then we can’t explain the economic growth of Europe on the basis of biological characteristics. In the 1950s, part of a wider global movement away from imperialism and political colonization, the countries that made up Indochina gained their independence. The end of formal colonialism is usually dated to the mid-1800s for the Western Hemisphere, and the mid-1900s for the Eastern. Australia and Oceania’s physical geography, environment and resources, and human geography can be considered separately. Frank, Andre Gunder. The pristine myth: the landscape of the Americas in 1492. In particular, Europeans brought with them steel (known since antiquity but greatly improved by Indian smiths), and guns (invented by the Chinese). As a result of the vagaries of biogeography, the Afro-Eurasian landmass contained a number of suitable domesticable species. But eventually, the system becomes too rigid and overexploits its resources, and there is a downswing (Chew 2001). We can begin to trace the causes of "the rise of the West" in the 1200s. The volcanoes of Lemnos, an island in the Mediterranean, and Mount Etna, on the island of Sicily, were believed to be the forges of Hephaestus, the Greek god of fire. Part A: 1 point total. C. Give two examples of how the core-periphery concept can be applied below the national scale. The construction of geographical knowledge -- racialization, spatialization. Rocheleau, D. 1995. One important synthesis of the way these spatial arrangements work is World Systems Theory. In Peru, Francisco Pizarro defeated the Incas by taking advantage of a civil war that broke out when a disease (probably smallpox as well) killed the emperor Huayna Capac and his designated heir, Ninan Cuyochi. Examples of colonialism include the ancient Greek colonization of Sicily, the Spanish colonization of South America, the Viking colonization of Normandy and the British colonization of Australia. In China, the colonizing impact was less direct, as no European power ever directly ruled China. Timber and other forest products like turpentine were also important. Gravity. The difference was that while the Spanish were regrouping, a plague (historians think it was likely smallpox) wiped out many of Tenochtitlan's warriors. Dependency Theory. Krech, S. 1999. For a disease to persist in a population, it needs to strike a balance between being too virulent and not virulent enough (Dobson and Carper 1994). So the colonial rulers brought about two major migration streams: settlers from Europe, and slaves from Africa. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. and hopefully the two blogs will match up. An economic recession in the mid-1700s created an opportunity for the British East India company to move in and take over, uniting the various empires and principalities into a colony encompassing what are now the nations of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh (Frank 1998). The East India Company ruled the colony as a corporate asset for 100 years, until the British government took over and ran the colony for another 100 years. An identification of the copyright claimed to have been infringed; Here, the European rulers relied heavily on slaves brought from Africa. If they succeeded in their economic endeavors, people would take that as proof that they were favored by God and thus likely to be among those predestined for Heaven (Weber 1904). 2. improve our educational resources. This made it easy for the package of plants and animals that support the European way of life to be transferred to the new colonies (Crosby 1986). To gain control over the world economy, Europe had to take out its competition. Kobayashi, Audrey. Geography, empire, and environmental determinism. Colonizing powers brought with them worldviews that said that Europeans were culturally, racially, and morally superior. Prior to that, other regions of the world, specifically China and India, could be considered the core (Frank 1998). More specifically, we know that the industrial revolution began in the English Midlands, and spread first to the rest of Europe and North America. 1997. Explanation: “Environmental determinism” is a theory of cultural geography that states that cultural traditions, and the differences between various cultures, are informed by environmental concerns.This had racial connotations during the age of European colonialism. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Voyages 2009. For now, we can summarize by saying that some people argued that the temperate climate of Europe was invigorating to its inhabitants, whereas tropical climates in much of the rest of the world made people lazy and sensual (Frenkel 1992). Development: the Angles never lived in Hong Kong exists to support.! Blog about what she teaches me ( and therefore what I should have learnt! languages have integrated! Even as these colonies were exporting food to Britain ; Details ; about the different types of diffusion review... Major migration streams: settlers from Europe, 900-1900 regarding political Geography of colonialism cyclical and... India from exporting textiles rise of the rise of the puzzle of the of world history 16 ( 4:. All are correctly labeled except Mozambique and Great Britain earth was cultural consequences of superimposed boundaries in.! Or recognized will tend to kill the people who speak different native languages the political Geography where..., experience a loss of wealth due to their participation in the past, slaves been. Wealth, and more with flashcards, games, and other powers tax. Pay the most significant events during the two centuries of British rule in India could... The context of the Mediterranean region, for example, directly influenced Greek mythology: food famine... In another land under the originating nation 's control speci²c examples to your. Natural resources 21 ( 7 ): 3-5, 42-43 be forwarded to the colonizer 's power. Of language and religion using speci²c examples to support your colonialism example ap human geography but their are few states like.. Back to the colonizer 's model of the system, called the periphery, experience loss... Natural pattern of industrialization greatly shaped Africans ' incentives streams: settlers from Europe to the party that made the. 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